Residuary Non-Banking Company (RNBC)

What is a Residuary Non-Banking Company (RNBC)? In what way it is different from other NBFCs?

Residuary Non-Banking Company is a class of NBFC which is a company and has as its principal business the receiving of deposits, under any scheme or arrangement or in any other manner and not being investment, asset financing, loan company.

These companies are required to maintain investments as per directions of RBI, in addition to liquid assets. The functioning of these companies is different from those of NBFCs in terms of method of mobilisation of deposits and requirement of deployment of depositors' funds. However, Prudential Norms Directions are applicable to these companies also.

We understand that there is no ceiling on raising of deposits by RNBCs, then how safe is deposit with them?

It is true that there is no ceiling on raising of deposits by RNBCs but every RNBC has to ensure that the amounts deposited and investments made by the company are not less that the aggregate amount of liabilities to the depositors.

To secure the interest of depositor, such companies are required to invest in a portfolio comprising of highly liquid and secured instruments viz. Central/State Government securities, fixed deposit of scheduled commercial banks (SCB), Certificate of deposits of SCB/FIs, units of Mutual Funds, etc.

Can RNBC forfeit deposit if deposit installments are not paid regularly or discontinued?

No Residuary Non-Banking Company shall forfeit any amount deposited by depositor, or any interest, premium, bonus or other advantage accrued thereon.
Please tell us something on rate of interest payable by RNBCs on deposits and maturity period of deposits?

The amount payable by way of interest, premium, bonus or other advantage, by whatever name called by a residuary non-banking company in respect of deposits received shall not be less than the amount calculated at the rate of 5% (to be compounded annually) on the amount deposited in lump sum or at monthly or longer intervals; and at the rate of 3.5% (to be compounded annually) on the amount deposited under daily deposit scheme.

Further, an RNBC can accept deposits for a minimum period of 12 months and maximum period of 84 months from the date of receipt of such deposit. They cannot accept deposits repayable on demand.

What is the liquid asset requirement for the deposit taking companies? Where these assets are kept? Does Depositors have any claims on them?

In terms of Section 45-IB of the RBI Act, 1934 the minimum level of liquid asset to be maintained by NBFCs is 15 per cent of public deposits outstanding as on the last working day of the second preceding quarter.

Of the 15%, NBFCs are required to invest not less than 10% in approved securities and the remaining 5% can be in unencumbered term deposits with any scheduled commercial bank. Thus, the liquid assets may consist of government securities, government guaranteed bonds and term deposits with any scheduled commercial bank.

The investment in government securities should be in dematerialised form which can be maintained in Constituents' Subsidiary General Ledger (CSGL) Account with a scheduled commercial bank (SCB) / Stock Holding Corporation of India Limited (SHICL). In case of Government guaranteed bonds the same may be kept in dematerialised form with SCB/SHCIL or in a dematerialised account with depositories [National Securities Depository Ltd. (NSDL)/Central Depository Services (India) Ltd. (CDSL)] through a depository participant registered with Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI). However in case there are Government bonds which are in physical form the same may be kept in safe custody of SCB/SHCIL.

NBFCs have been directed to maintain the mandated liquid asset securities in a dematerialised form with the entities stated above at a place where the registered office of the company is situated. However, if a NBFC intends to entrust the securities at a place other than the place at which its registered office is located, it may do so after obtaining in writing the permission of RBI. It may be noted that the liquid assets in approved securities will have to be maintained in dematerialised form only.

The liquid assets maintained as above are to be utilised for payment of claims of depositors. However, deposit being unsecured in nature depositors do not have direct claim on liquid assets.

Please tell us something about the companies which are NBFCs, but are exempted from registration?

Housing Finance Companies, Merchant Banking Companies, Stock Exchanges, Companies engaged in the business of stock-broking/sub-broking, Venture Capital Fund Companies, Nidhi Companies, Insurance companies and Chit Fund Companies are NBFCs but they have been exempted from the requirement of registration under Section 45-IA of the RBI Act, 1934 subject to certain conditions.

Housing Finance Companies are regulated by National Housing Bank, Merchant Banker/Venture Capital Fund Company/stock-exchanges/stock brokers/sub-brokers are regulated by Securities and Exchange Board of India, Insurance companies are regulated by Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority. Similarly, Chit Companies are regulated by the respective State Governments and Nidhi Companies are regulated by Ministry of Company Affairs, Government of India.

There are some entities (not companies) which carry on activities like that of NBFCs. Are they allowed to take deposit? Who regulates them?

Any person who is an individual or a firm or unincorporated association of individual cannot accept deposit except by way of loan from relatives, if his/its business wholly or partly includes business that of loan, investment, hire-purchase or leasing company or principal business is that of receiving of deposits under any scheme or arrangement or in any manner or lending in any manner.

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